Monday, October 21, 2019
DNA Structure and Function Lab Report Essays
DNA Structure and Function Lab Report Essays DNA Structure and Function Lab Report Paper DNA Structure and Function Lab Report Paper Complementary bases Guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the implementers base of thymine in DNA and of oracular in RNA Double helix A pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. EXERCISE 1 -DNA structure Which carbon atom (position) in the sugar forms a covalent bond with the nitrogen base? The 1 carbon Which carbon atoms of dextrose bond with the phosphate molecule? 4 carbon and 5 carbon Which bases will pair with one another? Adenine will pair only with Thymine Cytosine Guanine In the figure below, write the letters that stand for the complementary bases in the double-stranded DNA puzzle. Indicate the number of hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs by dotted lines. Complementary DNA nucleotide strands The phosphate group at the top on the left strand is attached to which carbon atom (position) in the sugar? Which carbon atom of ribose would be attached to the next phosphate group added to the bottom of the left strand? It is attached to the OH group on the 5-carbon. Bottom left -OH is attached to 3 carbon. Which carbon atom of ribose would be attached to the next phosphate group that will be added to the top of the right strand? Which carbon atom of ribose is attached to the bottom right phosphate group? Carbon on top, 5 on bottom. What do you notice about the direction in which each strand is oriented? The left strand is from 5 to 3 and the right strand runs from 3 to 5; they go in opposite directions. II. DNA Replication DNA replication During the S stage of enterprise, each molecule of DNA makes an exact copy of itself. Origin. The place where the enzymes open up the double helix strand of DNA. Semi- conservative replication Saving a half of the old strand and constructing a new one alongside. EXERCISE 2 DNA replication How much of the newly formed DNA molecule is new and how much is the original strand? What term is used for this type of replication? 8 original and 8 new. How often in the life of a cell does replication occur? Only once. Explain the purpose of replication. The purpose is for each cell to make exactly one copy of itself. In the figures below, write the letters A, T, C, G representing the nitrogen base compounds on the two replicated DNA molecules. Label the old and the new strands. Did the nitrogen base sequence change in DNA replication? No, it remained the same. Ill. RNA Structure RNA A type of nucleic acid. EXERCISE 3 comparison of DNA and RNA How are ribose and dextrose sugar molecules similar and different? Similar Both are sugar molecules. Different Ribose is a compound of RNA and dextrose is a component of DNA. Why is the sugar molecule in DNA called dextrose and the sugar in RNA called ribose? Note the number of oxygen atoms. Ribose has more oxygen. Which bases are included in the DNA molecule? CAT Which bases are included in the RNA molecule? JUG C What do you notice about the number of strands making up each molecule? RNA had 1 and DNA had 2 Record your findings comparing DNA and RNA. DNA Sugar 8 4 Bases Strands 2 IV. RNA Synthesis Genetic code Contained in the DNA molecule, the genetic code consists of three bases in a sequence along one strand of the DNA. Transcription The process of assembling RNA using a DNA molecule as a template. RNA Messenger RNA tarn Transfer RNA RNA Ribosomal RNA Triplet A series of three bases on the DNA molecule Code Each three base sequence on a strand of Mrs.. EXERCISE 4 RNA synthesis (transcription) Write in the DNA strand according to the instructions given. Next, write the letters for the base sequence of Mrs.. In the spaces below DNA c 5 Mrs.. 3 Considering the structure of the nuclear envelope, how does the Mrs.. Exit the nucleus? It t ravels out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores. To transcribe means to copy. Is the RNA transcribed from DNA an exact copy? If not, what are the differences? The transcribed RNA is not an exact copy. RNA is single and Oracular replaces the thymine base. What happens to the original DNA section after RNA is transcribed from it? The DNA will re-bond with its complementary bases. Distinguish between replication and transcription. Replication is the exact copy while transcription uses DNA as a template but the structures are different. V. Protein Synthesis Translation An Mrs.. Sequence is read using the genetic code, which is a set of rules that defines how an Mrs.. Sequence is to be translated into the 20-letter code of mini acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.